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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2012  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 2-10

Biological response at the cellular level within the periodontal ligament on application of orthodontic force - An update


Departments of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Priyadarshini Dental College and Hospital, Tamil Nadu, India

Correspondence Address:
Nazeer Ahmed Meeran
Old No 6, New No 11, NGO Colony First Street, Nanganallur, (Kendriya Vidyalaya School Road), Chennai - 600 114, Tamil Nadu
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2278-0203.94769

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Orthodontic force elicits a biological response in the tissues surrounding the teeth, resulting in remodeling of the periodontal ligament and the alveolar bone. The force-induced tissue strain result in reorganization of both cellular and extracellular matrix, besides producing changes in the local vascularity. This in turn leads to the synthesis and release of various neurotransmitters, arachidonic acid, growth factors, metabolites, cytokines, colony-stimulating factors, and enzymes like cathepsin K, matrix metalloproteinases, and aspartate aminotransferase. Despite the availability of many studies in the orthodontic and related scientific literature, a concise integration of all data is still lacking. Such a consolidation of the rapidly accumulating scientific information should help in understanding the biological processes that underlie the phenomenon of tooth movement in response to mechanical loading. Therefore, the aim of this review was to describe the biological processes taking place at the molecular level on application of orthodontic force and to provide an update of the current literature.


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