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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 54-64

Effect of functional appliances on the airway dimensions in patients with skeletal class II malocclusion: A systematic review


Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopaedics, Faculty of Dental Sciences, Sri Ramachandra University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

Correspondence Address:
Annapurna Kannan
Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopaedics, Faculty of Dental Sciences, Sri Ramachandra University, Porur, Chennai - - 600 116, Tamil Nadu
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jos.JOS_154_16

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Objectives: The aim of the present systematic review was to assess the effect of functional appliances on the airway dimensions in patients with skeletal Class II malocclusion. Materials And Methods: Articles were identified through a literature survey carried out through the following databases: (1) PUBMED, (2) Google Scholar, (3) The Cochrane Library, (4) Embase, (5) Lilac, and (6) Web of Scholars. The systematic review analyzed 12 articles comprising removable functional appliances, 3 articles with fixed functional appliances, and 2 articles having both fixed and removable functional appliances. Results: Qualitative assessment was done for all the 17 studies. The effect of functional appliances in the dimensions of three airway spaces – nasopharynx, oropharynx, and hypopharynx were analyzed. Conclusions: Significant increase in the dimensions of nasopharynx and oropharynx was observed with Activator. Significant increase in the nasopharynx and hypopharynx (male patients) was observed with Bionator. Insignificant increase in the oropharynx was observed with the same. Significant increase in the oropharynx and hypopharynx was observed with Twin Block. Insignificant increase in the nasopharynx was observed with the same. Significant increase was observed only in the hypopharynx for Frankel II. Decreased or insignificant change was observed with FMA, MPA IV, and Herbst appliances.


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