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Management of a transmigrated mandibular canine
Sneh Lata Verma, VP Sharma, Gyan P Singh
2012, 1:23 (17 April 2012)
DOI:10.4103/2278-0203.94778  PMID:24987621
The purpose of this article is to report the management of a transmigrated mandibular canine with emphasis on saving the tooth as natural part rather than surgical removal of the transmigrated tooth. There are several treatment options proposed for impacted mandibular canines including surgical removal, exposure and orthodontic alignment, intra-alveolar tooth transplantation (surgical repositioning of a tooth in its alveolar socket) and observation. The technique, surgical repositioning of a tooth involves the surgical extraction of impacted tooth and fixation in the correct position in the dental arch after surgical preparation (correction) of the alveolar socket. It is especially valuable in cases of difficult-to-treat impaction. A repositioned tooth is better substitute than fixed or removable prostheses, and the technique is more cost effective than other methods. Patients with excellent oral hygiene should be considered as preferred candidates for surgical repositioning of tooth. Disadvantages include the invasiveness of surgery, the difficulty of projecting long term stability due to chances of root resorption and loss of gingival attachment.
  23,523 2,552 3
Biological response at the cellular level within the periodontal ligament on application of orthodontic force - An update
Nazeer Ahmed Meeran
2012, 1:2 (17 April 2012)
DOI:10.4103/2278-0203.94769  PMID:24987618
Orthodontic force elicits a biological response in the tissues surrounding the teeth, resulting in remodeling of the periodontal ligament and the alveolar bone. The force-induced tissue strain result in reorganization of both cellular and extracellular matrix, besides producing changes in the local vascularity. This in turn leads to the synthesis and release of various neurotransmitters, arachidonic acid, growth factors, metabolites, cytokines, colony-stimulating factors, and enzymes like cathepsin K, matrix metalloproteinases, and aspartate aminotransferase. Despite the availability of many studies in the orthodontic and related scientific literature, a concise integration of all data is still lacking. Such a consolidation of the rapidly accumulating scientific information should help in understanding the biological processes that underlie the phenomenon of tooth movement in response to mechanical loading. Therefore, the aim of this review was to describe the biological processes taking place at the molecular level on application of orthodontic force and to provide an update of the current literature.
  18,629 4,749 4
Iatrogenic possibilities of orthodontic treatment and modalities of prevention
Nazeer Ahmed Meeran
2013, 2:73 (9 October 2013)
The benefits of orthodontic treatment are numerous and in most cases, the benefits outweigh the possible disadvantages. Orthodontic treatment can play an important role in enhancing esthetics, function, and self-esteem in patients. However, it carries with it the risks of enamel demineralization, tissue damage, root resorption, open gingival embrasures in the form of triangular spaces, allergic reactions to nickel, and treatment failure in the form of relapse. These potential complications are easily avoidable by undertaking certain precautions and timely interventions by both the orthodontist and the patient. The orthodontist must ensure that the patient is aware of the associated risks and stress the importance of the patient's role in preventing these untoward outcomes. The decision whether to proceed with the orthodontic treatment is essentially a risk-benefit analysis, where the perceived benefits of commencing treatment outweigh the potential risks. This article provides an overview of the iatrogenic possibilities of orthodontic treatment and the role of the patient as well as the orthodontist in preventing the associated risks.
  11,443 4,013 -
En masse retraction versus two-step retraction of anterior teeth in extraction treatment of bimaxillary protrusion
Nayef H Felemban, Fahad F Al-Sulaimani, Zuhair A Murshid, Ali H Hassan
2013, 2:28 (9 April 2013)
DOI:10.4103/2278-0203.110330  PMID:24987640
In the present report, two techniques of space closure; two-step anterior teeth retraction (TSR) and en masse retraction (ER) were used in two adult patients who had bimaxillary protrusion and were treated with four premolar extractions and fixed orthodontic appliance therapy. Both patients had a Class I dental malocclusion and the same chief complaint, which is protrusive lips. Anterior teeth were retracted by two-step retraction; canine sliding followed by retraction of incisors with T-loop archwire in the first patient and by en masse retraction using Beta titanium alloy T-loop archwire in the second case. At the end of treatment, good balance and harmony of lips was achieved with maintenance of Class I relationships. The outcome of treatment was similar in the two patients with similar anchorage control. ER can be an acceptable alternative to the TSR during space closure since it is esthetically more acceptable. However, it requires accurate bending and positioning of the T-loop.
  7,847 1,572 4
Unusual treatment of bimaxillary dentoalveolar protrusion via miniscrews and molar extraction
Ahmad Al-Fraidi, Ahmed R Afify
2012, 1:51 (14 August 2012)
DOI:10.4103/2278-0203.99763  PMID:24987626
This case report describes the treatment of a Saudi female patient, aged 13 years 8 months at the start of treatment, with a Class I bimaxillary dentoalveolar protrusion and extracted maxillary first molars. Miniscrews were placed bilaterally in the interdental space between both the upper and the lower posterior teeth. The treatment plan consisted of extraction of both lower first permanent molars, distalization of upper and lower premolars using miniscrews followed by en masse retraction of the upper and lower six anterior teeth. The active treatment period was 2 years 8 months. Arch retention was done using upper wrap-around retainer and lower fixed 3-3 retainer. The use of miniscrews helped to resolve the bimaxillary protrusion regardless of extraction pattern used.
  8,362 844 1
Maxillary molar distalization with MGBM-system in class II malocclusion
Giuliano Maino, Lisa Mariani, Ida Bozzo, Giovanna Maino, Alberto Caprioglio
2013, 2:101 (9 October 2013)
DOI:10.4103/2278-0203.119683  PMID:24987649
Aims: Objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate the treatment effects of the MGBM-System (G.B Maino, A. Giannelly, R. Bernard, P. Mura), a new intraoral device to treat Class II malocclusions with no patient cooperation by unilateral or bilateral molar distalization. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted to compare the pre-distalization and post-distalization cephalograms and dental model casts of 30 patients (15 male, 15 female) with Class II malocclusion treated with MGBM-System. Mean age at the beginning of treatment was 13.3 years (standard deviation 3.3). Angular, horizontal and vertical measurements were recorded to monitor skeletal and dental-alveolar changes. Molar movements in horizontal plane were monitored by making dental measurements on dental model casts. Results: The MGBM-System produced a rapid molar distalization and Class II relationship was corrected in 8 months ΁ 2.05, on average. The maxillary first molars were distalized of 4.14 (PTV-6 cemento-enamel junction), associated with a significant distal axis incline of 10. 5° referred to SN and a significant intrusion of 1.3 mm (PP). As for anchorage loss, the first premolar exhibited a significant mesial movement of 0.86 mm, associated with a significant mesial axis incline of 2.46°. No significative changes in either sagittal or vertical skeletal relationship were observed. Conclusion: The results suggest that the MGBM-System is an efficient and reliable device for distalizing the maxillary permanent first and second molars.
  6,617 899 4
An overview of surgery-first approach: Recent advances in orthognathic surgery
Vipul Kumar Sharma, Kirti Yadav, Pradeep Tandon
2015, 4:9 (19 January 2015)
DOI:10.4103/2278-0203.149609  PMID:25657986
The disadvantages of having orthodontic interventions both before and after orthognathic surgery include a long treatment time of 7-47 months and temporary worsening of facial appearance. Nowadays, the concept of surgery-first, followed by orthodontic treatment is applied to orthognathic surgery cases in different orthodontic centers in the world. This concept and technique is called "surgery-first-orthognathic-approach" or "surgery-first approach" (SFA) rigid fixation (skeletal anchorage system) of the bony segments and regional acceleratory phenomenon were keys to broad implementation of the SFA. This article is intended to provide an overview of SFA including indications, general and specific guidelines, different protocol variations, success rate and potential problems.
  4,788 1,750 9
New horizons in orthodontics and dentofacial orthopaedics
William J Clark
2012, 1:60 (26 November 2012)
DOI:10.4103/2278-0203.103861  PMID:24987628
During the 20 th century, functional appliances evolved from night time wear to more flexible appliances for increased day time wear to full time wear with Twin Block appliances. The current trend is toward fixed functional appliances and this paper introduces the Fixed Twin Block, bonded to the teeth to eliminate problems of compliance in functional therapy. TransForce lingual appliances are pre-activated and may be used in first phase treatment for sagittal and transverse arch development. Alternatively, they may be integrated with fixed appliances at any stage of treatment.
  5,399 858 -
Can orthodontic relapse be blamed on the temporomandibular joint?
Larry M Wolford
2014, 3:95 (18 October 2014)
There are many temporomandibular joint (TMJ) conditions that can cause orthodontic treatment instability and relapse. These conditions are often associated with dentofacial deformities, malocclusion, TMJ pain, headaches, myofascial pain, TMJ and jaw functional impairment, ear symptoms, etc., Many of these TMJ conditions can cause progressive and continuous changes in the occlusion and jaw relationships. Patients with these conditions may benefit from corrective orthodontic and surgical intervention. The difficulty for many clinicians may lie in identifying the presence of a TMJ condition, diagnosing the specific TMJ pathology, and selecting the proper treatment for that condition. This paper will discuss the most common TMJ pathologies that can adversely affect orthodontic stability and outcomes as well as present the treatment considerations to correct the specific TMJ conditions and associated jaw deformities to provide stable and predictable treatment results.
  5,095 689 2
Risk factors and management of white spot lesions in orthodontics
Kamna Srivastava, Tripti Tikku, Rohit Khanna, Kiran Sachan
2013, 2:43 (16 July 2013)
DOI:10.4103/2278-0203.115081  PMID:24987641
The formation of white spot lesions or enamel demineralization around fixed orthodontic attachments is a common complication during and following fixed orthodontic treatment, which mars the result of a successfully completed case. This article is a contemporary review of the risk factors, preventive methods and fate of these orthodontics scars. The importance of excellent oral hygiene practice during fixed orthodontic treatment must be explained. Preventive programs must be emphasized to all orthodontic patients. Suggestions are offered in the literature for ways to prevent this condition from manifesting itself.
  4,680 1,096 11
Mesiodistal tooth width and tooth size discrepancies of Yemeni Arabians: A pilot study
Talat Al-Gunaid, Masaki Yamaki, Isao Saito
2012, 1:40 (14 August 2012)
DOI:10.4103/2278-0203.99760  PMID:24987624
Objectives: The aims of this study were to determine the mean mesiodistal tooth size width and Bolton's anterior and overall ratios, find any possible sex differences, and study the frequency of tooth size discrepancies among Yemeni population and if there is a difference in tooth size between the right and left sides. Materials and Methods: 176 subjects aged 13-25 years (94 females and 82 males) with different types of malocclusions (94 Angle Class I, 37 Class II division 1, 36 Class II division 2, and 9 Class III) were included in the present study. The mean mesiodistal tooth size width and Bolton's ratios were determined. Results: The results showed that males had significantly larger teeth than females. The prevalence rates of clinically significant discrepancy greater than 2 SD were 29.53% and 14.20% in the anterior and overall tooth size ratios, respectively. Further, the results revealed that there were no significant differences in the tooth size width between right and left sides. Conclusion: The findings of the present study indicate that there was no significant difference between Bolton's ratio and that of Yemeni population.
  5,115 589 1
Canine retraction: A systematic review of different methods used
Rohit S Kulshrestha, Ragni Tandon, Pratik Chandra
2015, 4:1 (19 January 2015)
DOI:10.4103/2278-0203.149608  PMID:25657985
Canine retraction is a very important step in treatment of patients with crowding, or first premolar extraction cases. In severe crowding cases until, the canines have been distilized to relive the crowding, space to correctly align the incisors will not be available. Correct positioning of the canines after retraction is of great importance for the function, stability, and esthetics. The aim of this systematic review was to examine, in an evidence-based way, which kinds of canine retraction methods/techniques are most effective and which have the least side effects. A literature survey was performed by applying the Medline Database (Entrez PubMed) and Science Direct database covering the period from 1985 to 2014, to find out efficient ways to accomplish canine retraction. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), prospective and retrospective controlled studies, and clinical trials were included. Two reviewers selected and extracted the data independently and assessed the quality of the retrieved studies. The search strategy resulted in 324 articles, of which 22 met the inclusion criteria. Due to the vast heterogeneity in study methods, the scientific evidence was too weak to evaluate retraction efficiency during space closure. The data so far reviewed proved that elastomeric power chains, elastic threads, magnets, NiTi coil springs, corticotomies, distraction osteogenesis, and laser therapy, all are able to provide optimum rate of tooth movements. All the methods were nearly similar to each other for retraction of canines Most of the techniques lead to anchorage loss in various amounts depending on the methods used. Most of the studies had serious problems with small sample size, confounding factors, lack of method error analysis, and no blinding in measurements. To obtain reliable scientific evidence, controlled RCT's with sufficient sample sizes are needed to determine which method/technique is the most effective in the respective retraction situation. Further studies should also consider patient acceptance and cost analysis as well as implants and minor surgeries for canine retraction.
  4,126 1,498 1
Craniofacial cephalometric analysis of Bangladeshi and Japanese adults with normal occlusion and balanced faces: A comparative study
Ali Ahsan, Masaki Yamaki, Zakir Hossain, Isao Saito
2013, 2:7 (9 April 2013)
DOI:10.4103/2278-0203.110327  PMID:24987637
Aims: To determine the cephalometric norm among Bangladeshi adults and to investigate the differences in craniofacial morphology compared with Japanese and Caucasian normative data. Materials and Methods: Cephalometric radiographs were obtained from 46 Bangladeshi males (mean age 23.8 years) and 52 Bangladeshi females (mean age 24.6 years). Inclusion criteria were the following: Both parents from the same ethnic group, class-I occlusion with an arch length discrepancy less than 2 mm, overbite and overjet from 2 to 4 mm, balanced face, all teeth present except third molar, no previous orthodontic treatment, and no prosthetic replacement of teeth. Nine angular and five linear measurements were constructed for skeletal hard tissue analysis, four angular and six linear measurements for dental hard tissue analysis, and two angular and seven linear measurements for soft tissue analysis. Mean and standard deviations of measurements were determined for each gender. Polygonal chart and profilogram were made. Independent t-test was used to determine differences. Results: The present Bangladeshi population has a smaller lower face height ( P<0.01) and the antero-posterior position of the maxilla and mandible was found to be significantly ( P<0.01) more protruded compared with the Japanese and the Caucasian norms. Significantly ( P<0.01) more protruded upper incisor, less steep occlusal plane, and thinner soft tissue chin were the characteristics in Bangladeshi adults. Conclusions: Relative to the cranial base (SN), the maxillo-mandibular complex was more anteriorly placed compared with the Japanese and Caucasian adults. Further, the effective length of the maxilla and mandible was shorter compared with the Japanese and Caucasian adults. These findings should be considered carefully during orthodontic treatment planning of Bangladeshi adults.
  4,928 597 7
Cephalometric characterization of an adult Emirati sample with Class I malocclusion
Tayseer Al Zain, Donald J Ferguson
2012, 1:11 (17 April 2012)
DOI:10.4103/2278-0203.94772  PMID:24987619
Background: A review of literature indicates the Arab cephalometric pattern compared to the Caucasian cephalometric pattern is skeletally bimaxillary retrusive, dentally bimaxillary protrusive, and more divergent palatal and mandibular planes. Objective: The aim of this study was to clarify the cephalometric features of Emirates adults with Class I malocclusion and pleasing soft tissue profile and to evaluate for gender differences. The null hypothesis tested was no differences in lateral cephalometric measurements as a function of gender. Materials and Methods: The lateral cephalometric radiographs of adult Emirati nationals with Class I malocclusion were analyzed in order to characterize an indigenous Class I malocclusion population in the United Arab Emirates. Lateral cephalometric radiographs of 30 males with average age of 24.52±6.09 years and 31 females averaging 23.57±5.52 years were analyzed using Dolphin Imaging software. Twenty-two hard and soft tissue measurements comprised the cephalometric analysis. Results: Only one gender difference was demonstrated out of the 22 cephalometric analysis measurements used in the study; SN-PP mean for females (10.74±3.44 degrees) subjects averaged a 2.3 degree higher mean value than the males (8.43±3.95 degrees, P=0.018). The cephalometric study results were compared to published norms from Steiner and Eastman. Conclusions: Based upon the conditions of the present study, it may be concluded that adult Emirati males and females seeking orthodontic treatment with Class I malocclusion present similar cephalometric profiles with the exception that measurement SN-PP may be steeper in females than males. Moreover, Emiratis are likely to present greater incisor proclination and protrusion than Caucasians and may be generally considered as more bimaxillary protrusive.
  4,854 498 5
Allergy and orthodontics
Sunitha Chakravarthi, Sridevi Padmanabhan, Arun B Chitharanjan
2013, 1:83 (11 January 2013)
DOI:10.4103/2278-0203.105871  PMID:24987632
The aim of this paper is to review the current literature on allergy in orthodontics and to identify the predisposing factors and the implications of the allergic reaction in the management of patients during orthodontic treatment. A computerized literature search was conducted in PubMed for articles published on allergy in relation to orthodontics. The MeSH term used was allergy and orthodontics. Allergic response to alloys in orthodontics, particularly nickel, has been extensively studied and several case reports of nickel-induced contact dermatitis have been documented. Current evidence suggests that the most common allergic reaction reported in orthodontics is related to nickel in orthodontic appliances and allergic response is more common in women due to a previous sensitizing exposure from nickel in jewellery. Studies have implicated allergy in the etiology of hypo-dontia. It has also been considered as a high-risk factor for development of extensive root resorption during the course of orthodontic treatment. This review discusses the relationship and implications of allergy in orthodontics.
  4,214 865 3
Amelogenesis imperfecta and anterior open bite: Etiological, classification, clinical and management interrelationships
Xanthippi Sofia Alachioti, Eleni Dimopoulou, Anatoli Vlasakidou, Athanasios E Athanasiou
2014, 3:1 (19 February 2014)
DOI:10.4103/2278-0203.127547  PMID:24987656
Although amelogenesis imperfecta is not a common dental pathological condition, its etiological, classification, clinical and management aspects have been addressed extensively in the scientific literature. Of special clinical consideration is the frequent co-existence of amelogenesis imperfecta with the anterior open bite. This paper provides an updated review on amelogenesis imperfecta as well as anterior open bite, in general, and documents the association of these two separate entities, in particular. Diagnosis and treatment of amelogenesis imperfecta patients presenting also with anterior open bite require a lengthy, comprehensive and multidisciplinary approach, which should aim to successfully address all dental, occlusal, developmental, skeletal and soft tissue problems associated with these two serious clinical conditions.
  3,916 1,031 3
A cephalometric evaluation of tongue from the rest position to centric occlusion in the subjects with class II division 1 malocclusion and class I normal occlusion
Sanjeev K Verma, Pradeep Tandon, DK Agrawal, KC Prabhat
2012, 1:34 (14 August 2012)
DOI:10.4103/2278-0203.99758  PMID:24987623
Background: One of the common types of oro-dental morphopathologic relationship is the Class II Division 1 malocclusion. Therefore, the study of tongue position in Class II Division 1 may reveal a role of the tongue in the etiology or diagnosis of malocclusion. Aims: Present study was done with the aim to evaluate the tongue position radiographically in centric occlusion and rest position in the subjects with Angle's Class 1 normal occlusion and subjects with Angle's Class II Division 1 malocclusion and to find out any differences in tongue position between Angle's Class 1 normal occlusion and Angle's Class II Division 1 malocclusion group. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted on lateral cephalogram of 40 subjects between the age ranges of 16 to 22 years. The samples were divided into the Angle's Class 1 normal occlusion group (Group I) and the Angle's Class II Division 1 malocclusion group (Group II) with the 20 in each groups. The study involved the evaluation of tongue position at rest position and centric occlusion on the lateral head cephalogram. Results: This study for the evaluation of the tongue position from the rest position to the centric occlusion showed no statistically significant changes in both groups. However, there were greater changes in various parameters (From the rest position to the centric occlusion) in the subjects with Angle's Class II Division 1 malocclusion as compared to the subjects with the Angle's Class I normal occlusion group. Conclusion: From the present study following conclusion can be drawn: with the closure of mandible from the rest position to centric occlusion the tongue moved antero-superiorly in the tip region, superiorly in the dorsum region, and antero-superiorly in the posterior region in normal occlusion and postero-superiorly in Class II Division 1 malocclusion.
  4,026 657 1
Soft and hard tissue changes after bimaxillary surgery in Japanese class III asymmetric patients
Talat Al-Gunaid, Masaki Yamaki, Ritsuo Takagi, Isao Saito
2012, 1:69 (26 November 2012)
DOI:10.4103/2278-0203.103865  PMID:24987630
Objectives: To assess the effects of bimaxillary surgery on Class III subjects with mandibular asymmetry, and to compare the effects of the type of surgery performed in the mandible on the facial profile especially in the presence of facial asymmetry. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six patients in whom imbalance between the maxilla and the mandible were corrected by Le Fort I osteotomy combined with bilateral intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy (BIVRO group, n=9), bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy (BSSRO group, n=14), or a combination of intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy (IVRO) and sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO) (IVRO + SSRO group, n=13). Cephalograms were taken before surgery (T1), and 1 year after surgery (T2). Hard and soft-tissue changes were compared. Results: The postsurgical findings showed that greater mandibular backward displacement and greater upper lip forward movement were more pronounced among BIVRO group when compared with BSSRO group. Upper lip relation to E-line showed greater improvement in BIVRO group than BSSRO and IVRO + SSRO groups. The ratios of corresponding mandibular soft to hard tissue movements were higher than that of maxillary movements and were more pronounced in IVRO + SSRO and BSSRO groups when compared with BIVRO group. Conclusion: IVRO surgical technique appears to be more effective in positioning the mandible more posteriorly and improving upper and lower lips position and competence.
  3,973 615 1
Interdisciplinary treatment of an adult with a unilateral cleft lip and palate
Moatazbellah M Al-Ruwaithi, Ahmad A Al-Fraidi, Tawfiq S Al-Tamimi, Ali S Al-Shehri
2014, 3:17 (19 February 2014)
DOI:10.4103/2278-0203.127555  PMID:24987659
The management of cleft lip and palate (CLP) requires an interdisciplinary team providing comprehensive care. The present report presents an interdisciplinary approach for the care of a cleft patient. A 17-year-old male patient presented with a a chief complaint of "unpleasant appearance of my teeth" and a history of surgical repair of unilateral CLP on the left side. He presented with Class III molar relationships, Class II canine relationships, crossbite related to maxillary right first premolar and lateral incisor, severe maxillary and mandibular crowding, maxillary anterior tooth size deficiency, congenitally missing upper left lateral incisor. Patient was treated with a pre-adjusted edgewise appliance in conjunction with extraction of multiple teeth and distalization of the lower right first molar using a temporary anchorage device. In addition, alveolar bone graft and implant were placed to restore the missing upper left lateral incisor and a final esthetic work was performed for anterior teeth. The case was finished with Class I molar and canine relationships, minimal overjet and overbite. Total treatment time was about 31 months with satisfactory results. Post-treatment evaluation after 8 months showed stable results.
  3,825 746 -
Current trends in miniscrew utilization among Indian orthodontists
Nazeer Ahmed Meeran, KG Venkatesh, MF Jaseema Parveen
2012, 1:46 (14 August 2012)
DOI:10.4103/2278-0203.99762  PMID:24987625
Background: There is limited data about current utilization of miniscrews in orthodontic practices in India. The purpose of this survey was to obtain information on clinical utilization of miniscrews among orthodontists in India. Materials and Methods: A survey questionnaire was prepared and mailed to 2100 qualified and registered orthodontists in India. Results: A total of 1691 orthodontists responded to the survey, with a response rate of 80.52%. Among them, 952 (56.3%) had never used miniscrews in their clinical practice. Seven hundred and thirty-nine (739) (43.7%) had utilized miniscrews in their treatment, at some point of time. Among the orthodontists who used miniscrews, 463 (62.65%) used a surgical guide for positioning the miniscrews and 276 (37.35%) placed miniscrews without a surgical guide. Six hundred and thirty-four (634) (85.79%) orthodontists placed the miniscrews personally while 105 (14.21%) utilized the help of other specialists for placing the miniscrews. Among the orthodontists who used miniscrews, 76 (10.28%) utilized the help of oral surgeon to place the miniscrews while 29 (3.93%) utilized the help of periodontists to do the procedure. Conclusion: Miniscrews are a useful addition to the orthodontic armamentarium. The major indication for miniscrew was indirect anchorage in critical anchorage cases. The most important factors in determining the clinical utilization of miniscrews as a part of the treatment modality depends upon operator training and skill; fear of complications, patient refusal to accept miniscrews and the clinician's preference for conventional methods without unnecessary invasive procedure.
  3,834 711 4
Comparison of different parameters for recording sagittal maxillo mandibular relation using natural head posture: A cephalometric study
Ashish Kumar Singh, Sanjay V Ganeshkar, Praveen Mehrotra, Jitendra Bhagchandani
2013, 2:16 (9 April 2013)
DOI:10.4103/2278-0203.110328  PMID:24987638
Background: Commonly used parameters for anteroposterior assessment of the jaw relationship includes several analyses such as ANB, NA-Pog, AB-NPog, Wits appraisal, Harvold's unit length difference, Beta angle. Considering the fact that there are several parameters (with different range and values) which account for sagittal relation, and still the published literature for comparisons and correlation of these measurements is scarce. Therefore, the objective of this study was to correlate these values in subjects of Indian origin. Materials and Methods : The sample consisted of fifty adult individuals (age group 18-26 years) with equal number of males and females. The selection criteria included subjects with no previous history of orthodontic and/or orthognathic surgical treatment; orthognathic facial profile; Angle's Class I molar relation; clinical Frankfort Mandibular plane angle FMA of 30±5° and no gross facial asymmetry. The cephalograms were taken in natural head position (NHP). Seven sagittal skeletal parameters were measured in the cephalograms and subjected to statistical evaluation with Wits reading on the true horizontal as reference. A correlation coefficient analysis was done to assess the significance of association between these variables. Results: ANB angle showed statistically significant correlation for the total sample, though the values were insignificant for the individual groups and therefore may not be very accurate. Wits appraisal was seen to have a significant correlation only in the female sample group. Conclusions: If cephalograms cannot be recorded in a NHP, then the best indicator for recording A-P skeletal dimension would be angle AB-NPog, followed by Harvold's unit length difference. However, considering biologic variability, more than one reading should necessarily be used to verify the same.
  3,811 624 2
Facial profile preferences, self-awareness and perception among groups of people in the United Arab Emirates
Amjad Al Taki, Amina Guidoum
2014, 3:55 (21 May 2014)
DOI:10.4103/2278-0203.132921  PMID:24987664
Objectives: The objective of this study is to assess the differences in facial profile preference among different layers of people in the United Arab Emirates. Facial profile self-awareness among the different groups was also evaluated. Materials and Methods: A total sample of 222 participants (mean [standard deviation] age = 25.71 [8.3] years, almost 80% of the participants were of Arab origin and 55% were males); consisting of 60 laypersons, 60 dental students, 60 general practitioners, 16 oral surgeons, and 26 orthodontists. Facial profile photographs of a male and female adult with straight profiles and a Class I skeletal relationship were used as a baseline template. Computerized photographic image modification was carried out on the templates to obtain seven different facial profile silhouettes for each gender. To assess differences in facial profile perception, participants were asked to rank the profiles of each gender on a scale from most to least attractive (1 [highest score] and 7 [least score]). Awareness and satisfaction with the facial appearance on a profile view was assessed using questionnaires completed by the non-expert groups. Results: The straight facial profile was perceived to be highly attractive by all five groups. The least attractive profiles were the bimaxillary protrusion and the mandibular retrusion for the male and the female profiles, respectively. Lip protrusion was more esthetically acceptable in females. Significant differences in perception existed among groups. The female profile esthetic perception was highly correlated between the expert groups (P > 0.05). Overall agreement between the non-expert group's perceptions of their own profiles and evaluation by the expert orthodontist was 51% (κ = 0.089). Candidates who perceived themselves as having a Class III facial profile were the least satisfied with their profile. Conclusions: Dental professionals, dental students, and laypersons had a similar perception trends in female and male aesthetic preference. Laypersons were more tolerant to profiles with bi-maxillary retrusion. The expert group's esthetic perception was highly correlated only for the female profiles. Most of the non-experts were unable to correctly identify their facial profile.
  3,827 477 4
Soft-tissue cephalometric norms in a north Indian ethnic population
Avesh Sachan, Adit Srivastav, TP Chaturvedi
2013, 1:92 (11 January 2013)
DOI:10.4103/2278-0203.105877  PMID:24987634
Background: Soft tissues play the primary role of physical appearance and facial esthetics. This study aimed to establish soft-tissue cephalometric standards in North Indian adults, which can be used in diagnosis, treatment planning, and stability of orthodontic outcome and orthognathic patients. Materials and Methods: A group of 60 individuals (30 males and 30 females) with normal occlusion and proportional facial profile were chosen. For the entire chosen sample, lateral cephalograms were obtained. Standard values of 11 soft-tissue measurements were determined. Results: Soft-tissue measurements showed that men had greater soft-tissue facial angle (92.10°) than women (89.92°). Also, they had more nose prominence (18.10 mm) than women (16.44 mm). Skeletal profile convexity (A to N-pog) of men (0.40 mm) was less than women (1.76 mm). Basic upper lip thickness was higher in men (16.60 mm) compared to women (14.24 mm), while H-angle was higher in women (16.68°) as compared to men (14.30°). In the lower face area, inferior sulcus to the H line distance was more in men (7.30 mm) than women (4.80 mm). Men had greater soft-tissue chin thickness (14.10 mm) than women (12.84 mm). Conclusion: The differences in soft-tissue cephalometric norms between men and women of North Indian faces were established, so the orthodontist or surgeon must individualize treatment planning, using local norms as the reference.
  3,481 624 1
The effect of using CBCT in the diagnosis of canine impaction and its impact on the orthodontic treatment outcome
Ali Alqerban, Reinhilde Jacobs, Pieter-Jan van Keirsbilck, Medhat Aly, Steven Swinnen, Steffen Fieuws, Guy Willems
2014, 3:34 (21 May 2014)
DOI:10.4103/2278-0203.132911  PMID:24987661
Aim: To investigate the added-value of using CBCT in the orthodontic treatment method of maxillary impacted canines and treatment outcome. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 118 treated patients. The CBCT group (n = 58) (39 females/19 males with the mean age of 14.3 years) included those with conventional treatment records consisting of panoramic and cephalometric radiographs, intra-and extra-oral photographs, and dental casts and complemented with a CBCT scan for additional diagnostic information. The conventional group (n = 60) (31 females/29 males with mean age 13.1 years) included those with similar conventional treatment records but without CBCT imaging. Results: There were significant differences in the canine-related variables between both groups. The CBCT group had the higher level of difficulty and more severely displaced canines when compared with the conventional group. However, no significant difference was found between groups either in the number of treatment methods used or in the use of interceptive methods combined with other treatment modalities or choice of extraction versus non-extraction. In terms of treatment success and interval duration, no significant differences were found. However, treatment duration was significantly (4 months) shorter in the CBCT group compared with the conventional group (P = 0.023). Conclusion: CBCT has been used in cases with more severe symptoms of maxillary canine impaction. The use of CBCT improved the diagnostic capabilities and improved the chances of success in the more difficult cases to a level similar to that of simpler cases treated on the basis of 2D information.
  3,307 772 8
A comparison of shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded with four different orthodontic adhesives
Sudhir Sharma, Pradeep Tandon, Amit Nagar, Gyan P Singh, Alka Singh, Vinay K Chugh
2014, 3:29 (21 May 2014)
DOI:10.4103/2278-0203.132892  PMID:24987660
Objectives: The objective of this study is to compare the shear bond strength (SBS) of stainless steel (SS) orthodontic brackets bonded with four different orthodontic adhesives. Materials and Methods: Eighty newly extracted premolars 0 were bonded to 0.022 SS brackets (Ormco, Scafati, Italy) and equally divided into four groups based on adhesive used: (1) Rely-a-Bond (self-cure adhesive, Reliance Orthodontic Product, Inc., Illinois, USA), (2) Transbond XT (light-cure adhesive, 3M Unitek, CA, USA), (3) Transbond Plus (sixth generation self-etch primer, 3M Unitek, CA, USA) with Transbond XT (4) Xeno V (seventh generation self-etch primer, Dentsply, Konstanz, Germany) with Xeno Ortho (light-cure adhesive, Dentsply, Konstanz, Germany) adhesive. Brackets were debonded with a universal testing machine (Model No. 3382 Instron Corp., Canton, Mass, USA). The adhesive remnant index (ARI) was recordedIn addition, the conditioned enamel surfaces were observed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Results: Transbond XT (15.49 MPa) attained the highest bond strength. Self-etching adhesives (Xeno V, 13.51 MPa; Transbond Plus, 11.57 MPa) showed clinically acceptable SBS values and almost clean enamel surface after debonding. The analysis of variance (F = 11.85, P < 0.0001) and Chi-square (χ2 = 18.16, P < 0.05) tests revealed significant differences among groups. The ARI score of 3 (i.e., All adhesives left on the tooth) to be the most prevalent in Transbond XT (40%), followed by Rely-a-Bond (30%), Transbond Plus with Transbond XT (15%), and Xeno V with Xeno Ortho (10%). Under SEM, enamel surfaces after debonding of the brackets appeared porous when an acid-etching process was performed on the surfaces of Rely-a-Bond and Transbond XT, whereas with self-etching primers enamel presented smooth and almost clean surfaces (Transbond Plus and Xeno V group). Conclusion: All adhesives yielded SBS values higher than the recommended bond strength (5.9-7.8 MPa), Seventh generation self-etching primer Xeno V with Xeno Ortho showed clinically acceptable SBS and the least amount of residual adhesive left on the enamel surface after debonding.
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