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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 8

Craniofacial morphology of HIV-infected adolescents undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART): An original research

1 Department of Dentistry, Great Eastern Medical School and Hospital, Srikakulam, Andhra Pradesh, India
2 Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, HiTech Dental College and Hospital, Bhubaneswar, India
3 Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Saraswati Dhanwantari Dental College and Hospital and Post-graduate Research Institute, Parbhani, Maharashtra, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Abhishek Singh Nayyar
44, Behind Singla Nursing Home, New Friends' Colony, Model Town, Panipat - 132 103, Haryana
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jos.JOS_8_20

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OBJECTIVES: To analyze the craniofacial morphology in child patients and adolescents by evaluating the skeletal cephalometric profile of the HIV infected patients in this age group and comparing them with the HIV-negative controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study was a planned case-control study which included 25 HIV-positive adolescent patients aged between 10 and 18 years (the study group) who were compared with 25 age- and sex-matched HIV-negative adolescent controls (the control group). All the patients had been HIV infected via a vertical transmission with positive serology confirmed in two different tests and had been kept on HAART since they were born. The diagnostic aids used for orthodontic documentation included facial photographs, digital orthopantomographs, lateral teleradiographs, and study models. RESULTS: With reference to the methodologies used for taking the cephalometric values, all the methods used were in strong agreement with each other for almost all the variables studied and had high intra-class correlation coefficient values except Co-A, SN.ANSPNS, and SNB which, too, had a good agreement of 60%. Nevertheless, the agreement was positive for these variables, too, since the P values obtained were found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Most of the measurements in the HIV-infected adolescents were found to be similar to the ones obtained for the HIV-negative controls, although, the study results highlighted the significance of further studies to be conducted in this regard, especially, the longitudinal study designs wherein the said variables can be studied on a follow-up basis in longitudinal studies to have an idea of the exact changes observed and their pattern in the included groups.

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